In the world of motorcycle drag racing nothing is bigger than the NHRA (National Hot Rod Association) Pro Stock motorcycle class. I say that because it’s the only two-wheeled class that runs in conjunction with Top fuel, Funny car and Pro Stock car in the premier league of National USA drag racing; three to four days of qualifying and often 100,000 plus crowds, not to mention huge TV audiences, attract massive sponsorship deals, and so it should. Just look at these intimidating monsters that cover the quarter mile in a few seconds. Well actually USA pinnacle drag racing is now shorter after a fatal crash in 2008 when Scott Kalitta crashed his Funny car, which can be found on YouTube if you want to be shocked. So, to try to reduce speeds, NHRA brought the distance down from 1,320 feet (402m), to 1,000 feet (305m). But, as usual, in racing the top speeds have caught up.
If you’re wondering how fast, as you should, a top-end Pro Stock motorcycle will cover the 1,000 feet in around, or below, 6.8 seconds with terminal speeds of 200mph (320km/h). Also they reach 200km/h in less than four seconds, and a 0-100km/h time of less than one second, with all bikes using only a 10-inch wide rear drag slick tyre! Let’s not forget that a Pro Stock motorcycle has no forced induction (turbo or supercharged) and no nitrous oxide injection is allowed either, they’re all normally aspirated engines in different forms, well only two to be precise.
This class is so tight that well over 40 entries will compete for only16 places in the elimination sages, bit like a world cup with eliminations leading to semi-finals leading to a big finale. I said ‘tight’ because in the last event 6.83 seconds qualified first and 6.94 was 14th, which all leads to the reaction times off the lights to win, where these guys are the best. And ladies too as they can compete on equal terms with the men and indeed Angelle Sampay has won the world tile before. World title, huh…only in America, where every sport has its ‘own’ world title, if you know what I mean?
Now on to the bikes. Apparently they have to resemble a ‘street bike’ from a distance, hence the bodywork but the two engines are either a massive V-twin or not so massive in-line four cylinder. Class rules state the V-twin can be 160 cubic-inch (2.6 litres), but it has to have only two-valve cylinder heads and push rod camshaft activation, also with fuel injection allowed. On the other side is the Suzuki based engine (what else?), which can go to 107 cubic-inch (1,750cc), with a two-valve GS based head and use of carbs only. To also level the field the V-twin can weight no more than 620 pounds (282kg), and the four-cylinder 515 pounds (234kg). Obviously to try to offset the ridiculous torque the big twin makes off the line, but it does make for the closest racing you’ve ever come across. Sometimes lead weights are added to the bike to keep these parameters equal on all counts.
Interestingly the Suzuki based engine still uses modified GS1150 EF crankcases from the eighties but with a hyper expensive CNC billet two- valve cylinder head and predictably hefty clutch and gearbox. Still a testament to how strong those Suzuki engines were and still are. I’ve seen claimed horsepower from a 1640cc engine at 320hp, so being racing figures it will probably be more.
However in the Harley-Davidson and Buell camp it’s a different story and then some. In fact the only connection with the two names mentioned are the brand name stickers on the bikes bodywork, and they’re, err…V-twins. S&S racing division makes the huge engines for the Buell bikes, all 2.6 litres of them. Entirely made from billet components and claiming 360hp plus, who knows what the torque figures must be, and you can even buy just the S&S engine for $42,500 if you fancy transplanting one into your scooter but just listen to these figures folks. 5 –inch piston size or 130mm across, no compression figures but think of at least 18:1, billet rocker arms and push rods made from Superman’s legs that allow this ridiculous engine to rev to 10,500rpm! The camshafts have at least a one-inch lift (26mm) and the valve springs are rated with a return pressure of over 1,400kg, or the same weight as a small family car, amazing components or what? Obviously many ‘secrets’ are hidden in those billet barrels as well, which have cast iron liners.
As you can see from the images here ‘Harley-Davidson’, built by Vance & Hines, are the team to beat with three riders, Andrew Hines, Chip Ellis and Eddie Krawiec who is last year’s Championship holder, leading the way. Steve Tonglet is close behind on the Suzuki machine and many more are close as well.
With one round to go, of 16, at Pomona in California, it’s going to be close and, by the time you read this, it will all have been decided and the NHRA 2018 Pro Stock motorcycle Champion named. So please visit www.nhra.com for all the final class results and even more information, well worth a look. Also check out the many videos of these bikes on YouTube, you’ll be highly impressed believe me!
Francesco Bagnaia closes this incredible season with the title in Moto2. Party completed by Luca Marini at his first victory.
Sepang (Malaysia), November 4th 2018 - Francesco Bagnaia, third at the finishing line of the Malaysian GP, is the 2018 Moto2 World Champion with the Sky Racing Team VR46. After an incredible season with 8 victories and 12 podiums, Pecco won the title in the intermediate class. A special day completed by the first victory of Luca Marini, who has dominated the GP.Pecco, a talent raised in the Sky project and the VR46 Riders Academy since 2014, rookie of the Year in Moto2 in 2017, is the true protagonist of the 2018 season. After winning the inaugural race in Qatar, he has successed in Texas, France, Holland, Austria, San Marino, Thailand and Japan and he has reached 304 points in the standings. With 16 podiums in the 2017/2018 biennium, all with the Sky Racing Team VR46, is one of the most successful Italians in the Moto2 category.Historic day for the Team also crowned by Luca's first victory, second in qualifying yesterday, impressive in the warm up and able to impose his pace in the race dominating from the first to the last corner.
Introducing the Scrambler 1200 XE, all-new benchmark-setting motorcycle that represents a first for dual-purpose capability and modern custom style. This beautiful new 1200 Scrambler delivers a category redefining level of performance, specification and finish, fused with Triumph’s iconic Scrambler DNA and all the capability of a genuine adventure motorcycle.
Built to deliver a sublime riding experience on every road, packed with class-leading specification and state-of-the-art technology, this new modern classic takes the
legend that Triumph started to a whole new level. The first of a new generation, and the best in every dimension. The real deal is here.
New benchmark setting Scrambler
1200 Scrambler XE – built to be just as great on the road but with even more extreme off-road capability
High Power 1200cc Bonneville twin engine, with dedicated Scrambler tune, delivering 90 PS @ 7,400 rpm
Incredible torque output of 110 Nm @ 3,950rpm
Sculpted high level exhaust and a signature twin Scrambler soundtrack
Category dominating capability
Class leading state-of-the-art technology including;
2nd generation TFT instruments
6 riding modes, including Off-Road Pro on the XE
Optimised cornering ABS and cornering traction control on the XE
IMU and fully integrated technology system
All LED lighting, including signature DRL headlight
Intuitive switch cubes & 5-way joystick
Illuminated backlit switches
USB charging socket
Heated grips as standard on the XE
The Movistar Yamaha MotoGP Team are celebrating at the Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit today, as they have returned to the top step of the podium with Maverick Viñales taking a stunning win. Valentino Rossi was also a strong contender in today's Michelin Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix. He crossed the line in sixth place.
VIñales didn't have the start he had hoped for from second on the front row and slotted into tenth position after the first corners. At the end of the first lap he started to climb his way back up the ranking order, and on lap 3 he moved into eighth position. He remained there for a while, but was looking comfortable.
Drama happened with 21 laps to go, when Johann Zarco and Marc Márquez collided. Unaffected by the incident, the Factory Yamaha rider used the moment to launch his attack. He smoothly fought his way through the rider field to take the lead on lap 8. From that moment on he did exactly as he predicted yesterday: he put his head down, lapping 1'29s laps, to break away at the front.
Towards the end of the race the Spaniard had a comfortable advantage of over 4s, allowing him to have a bit of a breather over the last five laps. He didn't put a foot wrong and secured a fantastic victory, with a 1.543s margin over his closest rival.
Rossi had a good start from seventh on the grid, gaining a spot on the first lap. He continued to fight in the bunched-up leading group and soon found a way past Álex Rins to take fifth. He was looking to hit the front of the pack early but got involved in a scrap with Zarco and Jack Miller, which moved him back to sixth.
As Zarco and Márquez touched going into turn 1 on lap 6, the fight for the lead heated up. Viñales took the number one spot on lap 8 and the Doctor was keen on following him. He wrestled for a bit with Andrea Dovizioso and initially came out victorious, so he could attempt to follow his teammate in first place, but he couldn't quite keep up the challenge.
A fight with Andrea Iannone cost him some valuable time, and with 12 laps to go he got swept up again in a battle consisting of five riders fighting for second place. Rossi was pushed back to fifth but wasn't about to give up. With 8 laps to go he made another charge, briefly reclaiming second place, only to find himself in sixth again shortly after. The Italian pushed hard and had another try in the final three laps, but still finished the race in sixth place, 5.132s from his teammate.
Today's results see Rossi hold third position in the championship standings with a 15-point gap to second. Viñales remains in fourth place, and thanks to his splendid win he currently has a 15-point gap to his teammate.
Yamaha holds third place in the Constructor Championship after the race in Australia, with a 44-point margin to second, while the Movistar Yamaha MotoGP Team remain in second position in the team standings, with now a 16-point gap to first.
The Movistar Yamaha MotoGP Team will be back in action at the Sepang International Circuit next weekend for the Shell Malaysia Motorcycle Grand Prix, held from November 2nd - 4th.
This weekend marked a significant moment for Jonathan Mlimi, South Africa’s rising motocross star. After a stand-out year of racing in his still young motocross career, he stormed to his second national title and was crowned Pro Mini Champion at Johannesburg’s Dirt Bronco track.
As the son of motocross legend Eury Mlimi, the youngster is running fast on a path his father fought hard to pioneer in the 80’s. Eury turned the sport on its head when he became South Africa’s first black professional motocross rider.
“Firstly it was hard to get anything done as a black person in South Africa during the Apartheid era. So my dad had one goal and that was to change his story and his life in general. He wanted to move away from the homelands and pursue his racing career, and he was welcomed with open arms in the motocross community,” explained Jonathan.
While he was still too young to witness his father race, Jonathan describes growing up watching his older brother Joshua compete, who is equally as passionate about the sport and rides on the same Red Bull KTM team as him.
“My dad started taking me with to watch my brother race - it was always so much fun because he would let me dress up in my brother’s kit and ride around on my push bike,” he said.
Winning the Pro Mini Championship has only pushed Jonathan deeper into his motocross dream of becoming “one of the best riders in the world”, and he has already set his sights on repeating the victory in the High School Class next year.
A parting shot from nine-time National Champion and fellow Red Bull KTM rider Kerim Fitz-Gerald:
“Jono is a very composed athlete and comes across very calculated when he rides - he doesn't often make silly mistakes or ride out of his comfort zone. With Eury as his father he has a really good backing and the right people behind him to go far in this sport.”
The Pata Yamaha Official WorldSBK Team's 2018 FIM World Superbike Championship campaign came to a premature conclusion in Qatar this evening, when WorldSBK Race 2 was cancelled on safety grounds shortly before the scheduled start. The news brought the curtain down on the team's most successful WorldSBK season to date, during which Michael van der Mark and Alex Lowes racked up three race wins and a total of 14 podium finishes between them.
Van der Mark and Lowes were met by high winds, a sandstorm and then torrential rain as they arrived at the Losail International Circuit for the final race day of the 2018 season. The adverse weather saw a delay to the race program, with the WorldSBK riders taking to the track for 15 minutes of warm-up more than 90 minutes later than scheduled.
Following the session concerns were raised by the riders about the track conditions, which resulted in a further delay to the program as circuit staff worked to disperse the water running across the track in several areas.
Following the WorldSSP race, which was shortened from 15 to 12 laps, the safety commission made the decision to cancel WorldSBK Race 2, due to standing water on the track and after taking into account the differences in power and tyres of WorldSBK and WorldSSP machines.
The cancellation of the final race of the 2018 season meant van der Mark missed the chance, albeit an outside one, to challenge for second place in the championship standings, but the Pata Yamaha rider was happy to finish third, which exceeded the expectations he had at the start of the year.
For Lowes, whose speed and consistency in Qatar was impressive throughout the weekend, the cancellation of Race 2 meant he lost the opportunity to add another podium finish to the one he secured yesterday in Race 1 when he took a hard fought third place. The Pata Yamaha rider ended the season sixth in the championship standings with 248 points.
While Qatar marks the end of the 2018 FIM World Superbike season the work doesn't stop for the Pata Yamaha Official WorldSBK Team. The team head to Spain next month, where van der Mark and Lowes will commence their build up to the 2019 season.
2018 marks the 20th anniversary of the YZF-R1, surely one of the most influential motorcycles ever to be launched by Yamaha. Designed without compromise, the original R1 brought race bike engine performance and new levels of handling agility to the road rider and introduced a new era in supersport motorcycle design.
Yamaha's R-series supersport line has grown to include four class-leading motorcycles that have been developed using the same no-compromise philosophy that has made the YZF-R1 such an enduring success.
For 2019 Yamaha will introduce the new YZF-R3that features a radical YZR-M1 inspired look together with a range of new performance-enhancing technology and refined ergonomics. Together with the recent announcement of the new YZF-R125 - as well as the latest YZF-R6, YZF-R1 and YZF-R1M - the R-series range is the most comprehensive line up of premium supersport models.
R World is calling
Yamaha has a rich heritage of building the most sought after Supersport motorcycles designed to deliver the pinnacle of performance on and off the track. From the rider-friendly YZF-R3 to the competition-focused YZF-R1M, the Yamaha R-series model line-up provides options for riders of all skill levels to experience the pure exhilaration of R World.
New 2019 YZF-R3
Powered by a 321cc twin-cylinder engine that delivers excellent power for navigating cross-town traffic, carving twisty roads, or participating in a track day, the new 2019 YZF-R3 is a user-friendly lightweight supersport featuring Yamaha's race-inspired R-series styling. With its accessible seat height and ergonomic riding position, the new YZF-R3 is the perfect bike for first-time riders or experienced sport bike pilots who prefer a compact, nimble and agile machine.
Renowned engine and chassis
A reliable 321cc liquid-cooled, four-stroke, in-line twin-cylinder, dual overhead cam (DOHC), 4-valve, fuel-injected engine is at the heart of the YZF-R3. Featuring the latest combustion technology together with lightweight forged aluminium pistons and all-aluminium DiASil cylinders with an offset design, the smooth-running and quick-revving YZF-R3 engine produces easy-to-manage power.
A lightweight high tensile steel tubular frame with a simple design incorporates the engine's crankcase as a stressed structural member of the chassis, resulting in the perfect balance of rigidity and weight. The long asymmetrical swingarm design ensures the efficient transmission of engine power to the rear wheel and delivers excellent straight-line stability, while the Monocross rear suspension system features a preload-adjustable KYB rear shock that gives stable damping and contributes to a mass centralization of weight.
Combined with the all-new inverted front forks, an all-new triple clamp, 10-spoke cast aluminium wheels, a 298mm front brake disc with a floating twin-piston brake caliper, 32 degrees of handlebar steering range, a 780mm seat height and approximately 50/50 front-rear weight distribution, the YZF-R3 chassis delivers agile and responsive handling.
All-new Inverted front forks and R-series type aluminium handlebar crown
To help achieve the right balance of comfort and sport riding performance for both street and track, the 2019 YZF-R3 features all-new KYB 37mm inverted front forks. Featuring a larger surface area between the outer and inner tubes than on conventional forks, the inverted design significantly improves fork rigidity, giving a sporty front-end feel and precise levels of surface feedback - while maintaining high levels of riding comfort.
Coupled with an all-new triple clamp that incorporates an aluminium handlebar crown with R-series styling, the new front suspension assembly works to provide the rider with outstanding handling during cornering and braking. The new inverted forks also enhance the overall specification of the 2019 YZF-R3 so that it more closely matches the premium appearance of the larger R-series models, giving a heightened pride of ownership and true feeling of belonging to the R family.
New fuel tank design and lower handlebar position
The easy-to-ride character of the YZF-R3 is further enhanced for 2019 thanks to a new fuel tank and fuel tank cover design, along with a handlebar position that is 22mm lower. Fuel tank capacity remains at 14 litres, but the redesigned shape of the tank and cover (31.4mm wider above the knee area and 20mm lower at the fuel cap) helps to achieve a feeling of unity between the rider and machine.
From riding around town to being tucked in on a straight or banking over while apexing track corners, the ability to easily grip the YZF-R3 from multiple body positions allows the rider to take advantage of its full performance potential.
Aerodynamic new front fairing and windscreen design
The new YZF-R3 features a front fairing and windscreen design that pays homage to Yamaha's flagship MotoGP®race bike, the YZR-M1, with an aggressive look that also achieves outstanding aerodynamic performance.
Developed in conjunction with wind tunnel and track tests, the new fairing and windscreen combination reduces aerodynamic drag by seven percent, enabling a decrease in air turbulence around the rider's helmet when in a tucked position, and giving an increase of up to 8 km/h in top speed. The YZR-M1 style central duct in the fairing also functions to direct airflow to the radiator, contributing to engine cooling performance.
Additional new features
New YZF-R1 inspired dual LED headlights and position lights add to the aggressive look of the redesigned front fairing, and a new LCD instrument panel displays essential information that is easy to read at a glance.
The lightweight 10-spoke wheels are shod with radial tyres, providing the YZF-R3 rider with the best possible grip in all riding conditions.
Ultimate Yamaha lightweight supersport
High-revving 321cc inline 2-cylinder liquid cooled DOHC 4-valve engine
Compact and lightweight high tensile tubular steel chassis
Radical new YZR-M1 MotoGP® inspired styling
New front fairing and screen gives up to 8 km/h top speed increase
YZF-R1 style dual LED headlamps and position lamps
Reshaped fuel tank and lower handlebars for improved sports ergonomics
New 37mm inverted front forks and Monocross rear shock
New multi-function LCD instruments with easy to read displays
Refined performance with outstanding reliability and excellent economy
Idealized 50/50 weight distribution for agile handling
In the normal mode of celebrating a heritage of motorcycle racing, the Goodwood Revival now in its twentieth year of running, features some of the worlds superstar champions who were invited by Lord Marsh to contest the two-leg race on machines that pre-dated the 1954 cut off for these antique grand prix racers this year.
The race consists of some two legs run over the weekends packed race schedule. Each leg is contested by two riders who get around fifteen minutes of track time to strut their stuff before a crowd of over 50 000 race watchers all seemingly dressed up to the nines in 1950 period party type clothing. All this for the seasonal sporting occasion and a theatre for some of the most amazing cut and thrust racing to be seen in the UK on the a track with flowing layout and brisk corners. That always seems to provide dices in many of the races all day long from the first running of the track with its main focus on cars.
The Barry Sheen races are a highly prized event for two-wheel petrol heads. The addition to the mix of Freddie Spencer, John McGuiness, Jeremy McWilliams and Troy Corser, soon showed who was up for it. With Glen English and riding partner, John McGuinness setting pole position time. Second place went to an 85-year-old supercharged BMW with Troy Bayliss and this rigid framed machine, owned by Herbert Schibe was packing an extra 30 horse power over the rest of the fields Manx Norton’s, Matchless and Velocette racers. In fact, Corser set a speed trap time of over 130mph, while the machine handled like a pogo stick in the corners where the wheel jumped around like crazy, said Corser.
The 1929 BMW Compressor of Bayliss refused to start at the Le Mans race and he got away last, way behind Glen English who opened up a huge lead advantage over James Hillier and Ian Bain’s other Manx Norton. At the time, Jeremey McWilliams was out in front in the early laps but sadly the previous winning combination of himself and Duncan Fitchett were side lined as the long stroke Manx expired with a puff of blue smoke to end their charge. Meanwhile, Corser was turbocharged as he and Schwab sliced through the field to claim the third place behind Hillier and a steady riding John McGuiness who was fresh from his win at the Isle of Man Classic race.
The 500cc racers were all lined up for the second day’s events in stunning weather but this day was to belong to Troy Corser who was due to ride the second-leg of the race at the rider change, after which the fast riding of multiple classic racing world champion, Glen English and McGuiness held over 16 seconds advantage on the Manx Norton at the rider change.
The enduro riding style of Corser cut the advantage down by 12 seconds on the first lap and he was soon among the top riders like Charlie Williams, Adam Child and Ian Bain, gobbling them up at an alarming rate.
With the favourites of McWilliams and Fitchett once again side-lined with mechanical gremlins on their weekend to forget, Troy gave a brilliant riding display when passing the Norton, he gave a pat on the back to John McGuiness as he shot by on the main straight with three laps to go. In a demonstration of sheer brilliance to give BMW their first win in the Memorial Race in the 20 year drought of competing in the slipstream of the 20th year of the event which can only be described as thrilling to behold for any spectator parked on the embankments at this star studded event.
The original Suzuki GSX1100S KATANA caused a sensation when it launched in 1981. It won the hearts of riders around the world and forever changed street motorcycle trends. The impact was so great, the KATANA continues to influence motorcycle designs even today.
Having poured its heart and soul into forging the original KATANA, Suzuki never lost its passion for the model. The legend of the KATANA lived on within the company as successive generations of designers and engineers anticipated the day they might get to work on new version.
Fast forward to the fall of 2017 when the KATANA 3.0 CONCEPT model was introduced at EICMA in Milan. Designed by famed motorcycle designer Rodolfo Frascoli and built by Engines Engineering, this new vision of a thoroughly modern KATANA sparked a fire in the hearts of all.
Listening keenly to the feedback from EICMA and excited about the potential demonstrated by the KATANA 3.0 CONCEPT, Suzuki felt this was the right time to introduce a thoroughly modern version of the legendary KATANA. Development began soon after, with a team of designers and engineers burning the midnight oil in Hamamatsu until satisfied they had brought together all the elements necessary to create a new legend with the 2020 KATANA.
Each of the styling features and performance components that distinguish the KATANA underwent many iterations to achieve the desired level of refinement and functional beauty. Overall, the development process came to closely resemble the arduous process of creating the Japanese sword from which the model’s name is derived.
The KATANA product concept is;
“Forging a New Street Legend”
The KATANA was developed to be a sporty-looking standard street motorcycle that takes lean, mean retro flair and evolves it to offer thoroughly modern styling and performance. Built to deliver the exciting ride one would desire in a current 1000cm3 class motorcycle, the KATANA is also designed to provide easy control over that power and a comfortable riding position.
In paying due tribute to Suzuki’s legendary KATANA while updating both the looks and level of performance to a leading standard for today’s street scene, the KATANA reflects Suzuki’s ongoing commitment to fine craftsmanship and its willingness to sweat every detail to get them right.
Major features of the KATANA
Sleek, sporty profile with sharp, sweeping lines
Gives the distinctive design of the legendary KATANA a totally modern look
Sharp front end and clean, taut-looking rear end
Distinctive new LED headlight and LED front position lights design
Unique satellite rear fender extending from the swingarm
Red logo decal inherited from the legendary 1980s KATANA
Two-tone seat designed for comfort and good looks
Custom black upswept muffler
High-performance 999cm3 liquid-cooled inline-four engine
Inherited from the GSX-R1000 and custom-tuned for the street
Precision fuel injection system
Advanced engine control management
Suzuki Dual Throttle Valve (SDTV) system
Suzuki Exhaust Tuning (SET) system
Custom 4-2-1 exhaust system
Lightweight, compact and highly rigid aluminum frame
Lightweight, ruggedly braced aluminum swingarm
Fully adjustable Ø43mm KYB inverted front forks
Radial mount 4-piston Brembo front brake calipers
3-mode traction control system
Low RPM Assist
Suzuki Easy Start System
Back-torque limiting clutch
Tubeless Dunlop tires with custom-designed pattern
Antilock Braking System (ABS)
Comfortable upright riding position
Informative full-LCD instrumentation
The 110kW (150PS) inline-four engine that powers the KATANA is directly inherited from the one that has long earned popularity and a solid reputation on the GSX-R1000.
However, a few minor modifications were implemented to realize even smoother throttle response and a wider torque band, as well as to optimize the induction roar and exhaust note.
Engine design - outline
Power is supplied by a four-stroke, liquid-cooled, DOHC, 999cm3 inline-four engine. It is a street-tuned version of the legendary 2005-2008 GSX-R1000 engine designed to provide smooth throttle response and immediate, controlled acceleration. The result is exciting and thoroughly satisfying performance with characteristics that make it easy to control.
The reasons Suzuki chose to use the GSX-R1000 engine (from 2005-2008) are as follows:
Its long stroke design delivers broad low-to-mid range power and torque that is well suited for street riding.
Its crankshaft/gearbox layout allows the use of a frame design that runs straight from the steering head to swing-arm pivot. This results in realizing a lighter weight main frame design.
The 2005-2008 generation GSX-R1000 won a number of racing championships around the world. The engine has great reputation in the market, it is reliable, and it delivers plenty of power.
The engine features a long-stroke design with a 73.4mm bore and 59.0mm stroke.
The long-stroke design allows the combustion chamber to be compact. This makes it possible to regulate the compression ratio while maintaining a flat-top piston shape. The result is a broad power range delivered smoothly across the entire rev range.